- Title: Letra de Índios
- Title: Cultura escrita, comunicação e memória indígena
- Title: nas Reduções do Paraguai
- Title: (The Handwriting of Indians. Written culture,
Title: communication and indigenous memory in the
Title: Paraguayan Reductions)
Subject: South American history in the colonial period,
Subject: Jesuit Reductions,
Subject: Guarani culture and religion,
Subject: Literature of South American indigenous
Authors Eduardo Neumann
- Format: 16x23
- Pages: 240
- Publisher: Nhanduti Editora 2015
- ISBN: 9788560990221
Título:Writing was born in the context of the rise of the urban societies that passed from prehistory to history. The cities felt quickly the need of intern organization, and writing played an important role. However, it is important to emphasize that the domination of writing codes was the privilege of a minority in these societies we call literate, because the overall part of the population continued illiterate.
Título:The same happened in the Jesuit-Guarani Missions of the Rio de la Plata basin. Among an indigenous population of more than 100.000 Guarani, only 60 Jesuits produced the huge majority of the known written documents. For a long time, historians knew half a dozen of letters written by Guarani people during the conflicts of the Guaranitic War. Some of them thought even that these letters had been written by the Jesuits themselves. With the recent research of Eduardo Neumann, a totally new panorama was revealed, and from the hazes of the past rose the figures of literate Guarani persons.
Título:We can ask ourselves if writing was implanted because of the needs of liturgy and diffusion of Christianity, political integration in the Spanish society or settlement administration. Or if it came up due to the needs to rationalize the transmission of information, from the administrator to his servants, or from the military chief (the king was the “mburuvicha guazu”) to his subordinates. Maybe it made the religious norms of Christianity and the laws of the Spanish State available to all citizens of the young urban centers, thus avoiding an exclusive dependence on the memory of the missionaries and chiefs of the cabildo. Certainly it brought up the designations e individualities of the first literate personalities among the Guarani.Títu
TítuloArno Alvarez Kern
TítTítuThe introduction of writing technology in the Guarani world constituted a revolution which profoundly transformed the ways of thinking and the social and political organization of the indigenous people. Evidently, such transformation happened in the context of a colonial regime that needed more efficient devices for the administration and the government of the population and the territory. The production and circulation of texts in the mission and to the mission furthered efficient transmission, preservation and actualization of Christian knowledge (a social memory) among the indigenous people. But there is also a paradox about this process, because the capacity to write and read texts, initially regulated by the Jesuits in a restrivtive manner, was quickly taken over by the Guarani who tried to subvert the forced control and to use it for their own benefits, inclusively as a weapon against their former impellers.
Título:After the expulsion of the Jesuits, the practices acquired were preserved in many regions of the Mission area, sometimes in a secularized way, but entirely assimilated and constantly recreated by the indigenous peoples.
Títu Guillermo WildeTítulo
The Handwriting of Indians
Written culture, communication and indigenous memory in the Paraguayan Reductions
(Letra de Índios. Cultura escrita, comunicação e memória indígena nas Reduções do Paraguai)