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Title: Decir el Cuerpo
Title: (Saying the Body)
Subtitle: Historia y etnografía del cuerpo
Subtítulo en los pueblos Guaraní
Subtitle: History and Ethnography of the Body
Subtítulo among the Guarani Peoples)
Subject: Guarani culture, etnography, linguistics
Author: Graciela Chamorro
Publisher: Tiempo de Historia, 2009, 16x23, 404p.
ISBN: 9789995381684
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Graciela Chamorro

Decir el Cuerpo. Historia y etnografía del cuerpo en los pueblos Guaraní
(Saying the Body. History and Ethnography of the Body among the Guarani Peoples)

$ 60,00 / € 60.00

Wolf Dietrich:
Título: The dictionaries of Father Antonio Ruiz de Montoya, dictionaries of the Guarani of the first half of the 17th century, represent the richest source for our knowledge of the Guarani world, of the Guarani language and culture of that period. The Bocabulario and the Tesoro, published in Madrid in 1640 and 1639, respectively, together with the Arte and the Catecismo, contain the Guarani cultural archive available to the author. Before coming to the praises of Montoya, I belief it is important to become also aware of his limitations. Montoya says nothing concrete about the diversity of the Guarani peoples of his time, nothing concrete about the dialect variation of Guarani that certainly existed. He did not register in Guarani the indigenous believes, myths and rites. He did register many terms of fauna and flora, but without describing or exemplifying them with the same richness he employed when recording other aspects of the indigenous culture.
Título:On the other hand, his dictionaries place at the user’s disposal an amazing lexical richness that is at the base of many modern Guarani dictionaries, e.g. by Peralty and Osuna, by Guasch, and by Ortiz Mayans. No modern dictionary of any of the numerous Tupi-Guarani languages reached the fullness of Montoya. The 10.000 succinct lemmas of his Bocabulario forward the reader to the 5.000 articles of the Tesoro, developed with many examples, derivations and even not lemmatized lexemes.
Título:It is the great merit of Graciela Chamorro to have rediscovered this internal richness of Montoya’s dictionaries and to have explored it systematically for her own linguistic and ethnographic interests. Her idea to extract of Montoya everything that could serve to a study of his knowledge about the Guarani culture and civilization of his time deserves our most profound respect. She demonstrated that Montoya’s dictionaries contain incredible treasures of ethnographic knowledge on the costumes and thought of the old Guarani people, but she also demonstrates that the tenacity of long year of studies made her one of the best specialists of the so-called classic Guarani or Jesuit Guarani. The world of the Guarani during the Reductions Period is neither our world nor the one of today’s avá, paî tavyterã or kaiowá, mbyá and guarayu indigenous. In many aspects, the Guarani language of the 17th and 18th centuries is different from today’s.
Título:The linguistic and ethnographic study of the body is part of the broad studies of Graciela Chamorro in this field. At first sight Montoya seems to have avoided all what the missionaries considered "indecent" in the context of the human body and its  activities. One of the surprising results of Chamorro’s studies is the realism of the description and thus the presence of several terms that do not occur as lemmas, but are found "hidden" in the examples given in the Tesoro. Without doubt, Montoya observed the realities of the indigenous life and collected the expressions they used.

Mark Münzel:
Título:The present anthropological doctoral thesis is based on all the knowledge of the indigenous and academic cultures and theologies that Graciela Chamorro received, but it focuses on a very precise point, namely the Guarani idea of the body that she reconstructs in an almost detective-like work, patient and exact, examining attentively the pages of the lexicons written by Antonio Ruiz Montoya. The linguistic treasure of the colonial Jesuit offers numerous data that the anthropologist-ethnolinguist separates, evaluates, classifies and compares with the present forms of Guarani speaking that she knows so well. Retaking in a different and original way the analysis of Melià’s doctoral thesis, she shows from a different viewpoint how the work of the missionary linguists saved from the oblivion of destruction the huge indigenous cultural richness that was at the same time transformed and reduced.
TítuloWe owe to Montoya and his expert reader Graciela Chamorro the knowledge of the vocables and, inside them, of the Guarani ideas about the body. We owe to the critics of Chamorro and to her ethnographic work among today’s Guarani, Kaiowá and Mbyá the discovering and the comprehension of the conflict between the European, neoplatonic idea inlaid in the colonial mission of the soul’s superiority over the body, on one hand, and the Guarani joy of the body, on the other.

Os Editores:
TítuloThe work Decir el Cuerpo (Saying the Body), by the anthropologist and ethnolinguist Graciela Chamorro, is the first volume of the Ethnographical-Historical Dictionary of the Guarani Language that seeks to access the culture and the worldview reflected by this language through the Guarani language as registered in the Jesuit sources of the 17th century.
TítuloHow did the Guarani groups of those days live and understand their bodies, especially in the erotic, sexual, and reproductive area and in the field of personal development? How did the missionaries and civilization agents interfere in this area of the indigenous way of being? Which appropriations and ressignifications were made by the Guarani and by the Jesuits? Looking for answers, the author reconstructs the Guarani idea of the body, illuminated by aspects of anthropology, history and theology, in a meticulous relecture of the lexicons published by Jesuit Antonio Ruiz de Montoya in the 17th century and on the base of her own present ethnographic work among indigenous peoples of Brazil, Paraguay and Argentine.

8.8.2 Expressions concerning the woman
Título:The woman’s desire for the man is expressed with pota or mbota, 'to want', as occurring in avapotahára, avapotase, avapotarise, ava ri ñemombotarise (V I, 161). On the other hand, the woman’s contention or her apathy relating to the men is described saying that 'she has no attentive ears for the man', ava rehe apysavyre'y, that she 'does not give attention to the man', ava rehe ñangarekuave'y (V I, 262).
Título:The woman who had sexual contact is corrupted, perforated, ikuaráva'e, snapped, imombugipyra, broken, mboaipyra, does not have virginity, imarãnyva'ee'y (V I, 268), is used, che poru (T 319). We may observe that in all these examples the woman figures as a passive subject. The active one is the man (T, 226, 312, 319). She is active when in her adolescence, 'she perforates herself', oñembokua, 'decomposes herself', oñemombochy (V I, 332). When the woman says in Guarani 'the índio took me', ava che pysy, Montoya translates it by 'the man sinned with me' (T, 291). As in the case of the man, the sexual activity of the woman is marked by the institution that regulates her, the “Christian” monogamist family. Thus the woman who lives with a man without being married to him is an 'attached' (concubine), kuña ijaguasáva'e (V I, 159).
Título:For the woman, explains Montoya, to marry was 'to get a male'. This could be imposed by paternal authority, as shown by the example che membotahave'y che ru chemomenda, 'my father married me by force to a man I did not want as a husband' (T, 218).
Título:Título:TVOCABULARIO tulo:Título:lotulo:Título:lotulo:Título:lotulo:Título:lotulo:TítuTESORO
Attached: kuña ijaguasáva'e (V I, 159)ítulo:Título:o::ítulo:Tílo:lChe mombúka ava che rekóvo: he deflorated me, says the woman (T, 226)
Friend of the male: avapotahára, avapotase, avapotase,
tlo:Título:loo:Ava che pysy: the man sinned with me, says the woman (T, 291)
avapotarise, ava ri ñemombotarise, ava ri tekuára (V I, 161)
Título:(Decir el Cuerpo, p. 236 [translated from Spanish]).