Menu >> | About us | Catalogue | Buy | Text Download | News | Authors | Contact

Title: Gramática y vocabulario de los Chiquitos (s. XVIII)
Title: (Grammar and vocabulary of the Chiquitos [18th century])Título:
Subject: Jesuit Missions in the South America,
Subject: Ethnolinguistics
Author: Sieglinde Falkinger, Roberto Tomichà (Eds.)
Dimensions: 17x24cm / 6,6x9,4 inches
Pages: 319
Shipping Weight: ... pounds / ... kg
Publisher: Itineriarios 2012
ISBN: 9789995479695
Buy in Brazil / Buy outside of Brazil

Sieglinde Falkinger, Roberto Tomichá (Eds.)

Gramática y vocabulario de los Chiquitos (s. XVIII)
(Grammar and vocabulary of the Chiquitos [18th century])

Título:Introduction:

Título:The Grammar of the language of the Indians called Chiquitos and The Vocabulary of the language of the Indians called Chiquitos, published here for the first time and in their original version, are two works by a  Jesuit missionary exiled in the Pontifical States of today’s Italy, where Jesuits found asylum after the expulsion of the Company of Jesus from the Spanish colonies in 1767. As the author himself says in the Prologue, to fill his “long intervals of idleness” as well as “to avoid the total loss of all that he had learned in seven years of studying that language, he undertook the work to organize, the best way he knew and the circumstances allowed, the complications of that language and to give some rules that could help those who would come afterwards” (f. 2). He adds that the language of the Chiquitos “is of great art and admirable composition, whose harmony and beauty of explaining its ideas were admired by the sagest missionaries and the most intelligent persons of other idioms” (f. 2), like the Jesuits Jaime de Aguilar and Ignacio Chomé who, “admiring the connection and art of the Chiquito [language], went as far as to say that he thought not even an angel was able to form such a beautiful idiom” (f. 2v).
Título:The work here presented was written after the Jesuits’ expulsion from the Spanish territories in 1767 and maybe after the extinction of the Company of Jesus in 1773. While Europeans of other nations went back to their countries of origin, the Spaniards and Portuguese sought refuge in the Vatican State, several of them living in the north of Italy.
Título:After the extinction of the Order, the ex-Jesuits were forced to integrate into Italy’s religious and civil life. Their knowledge and experiences opened up news horizons for European science, and in those day’s Italy, the americanist interest was at its peak: the ambitious project of Hervás pretended nothing less than the classification and description of all existing languages. To this aim, he used the information brought by the expulsed Jesuits who had knowledge of languages hitherto unknown in Europe. Hervás was in contact with Wilhelm von Humboldt, at the time the Prussian ambassador in Rome, whom he allowed to copy many works of his collection. While Hervás sought to “differentiate peoples and nations according to their languages”, Humboldt compared the languages according to their phonetics, grammar and lexicon (Zimmermann, 2001: 647, 652-653).
Título:Collecting grammars of the American languages was fashionable among the nobles and meant a small extra income for the ex-Jesuits who were living in an unsecure economic situation.
Título:Título:Título:
Título:The Chiquitos MissionsTítulo:
Título:Conducted by the Jesuits started a cultural system that connected the different ethnic groups established among the Chiquitos. The missionary method comprised all the vital spheres, spread the religion and laid the foundations of the economic system and the social structure.
Título:The population of the Jesuit reductions was composed of different linguistic (partialities) and families. As indicated by the provincial superior of the time, Father Francisco Burgés, only in the first four settlements, the following groups integrated themselves: “piñocas, quibiquías, tubasis, penoquíes, tabicas, guapas, taus, guadores, curuminas, coes, guatos, curucones, borasíes, sarabes, boros, penotos, taotos, curicas, tamacucas, chamoros, taniquipas, pequicas, quimes, subercias, paramíes, simiquíes, taucas, payores, and others”. In fact, the indigenous people “reduced” in the Chiquitos Missions were of at least 75 different groups belonging to six distinct linguistic families (Tomichá, 2002: 654). To avoid conflicts, the partialities were living in separate quarters which received the names of each of them (Moreno, 1973 [1888]: 443).Título:
Título:The already evangelized Chiquitos played an important role for integrating into the reductions groups who spoke different idioms and thus accelerate the language learning. But there was no absolute rule established; the stress laid on the boys’ education in the schools. Authorized to teach were “the maestro of the chapel and his second, the maestro of the choir”, who introduced the boys into reading, writing, and copying of musical notes (D’Orbigny , 2002 [1833]). The method of accommodation, developed and practiced by the Jesuits, required “a certain adaptation of the maestro to the thinking, ideas, and way of feeling of his pupils […]. He tried to start from what already existed, to facilitate the Indians’ comprehension, and he used a teaching method that corresponded to the comprehension ability of each pupil’s formative level” (Becker-Donner, 1966: 863). The Chiquitos indigenous people accepted the Jesuit model and converted themselves quickly into co-missionaries of the Jesuits (see Tomichá, 2002: 605). Our author claims that they “loved their missionaries and were eager like them to conquer for God unbelievers whom they adopted as their children and loved as their akin, and they could serve as an example to the Christians of Europe”.
Título:Título:
Título:The lingua geral – common language
Título:Due to the variety of different idioms there was a necessity to choose one of them as a “lingua geral”: “…and in these Chiquitos reductions of ours, there are neophytes of three and four languages. With all this, to eliminate this impediment to the holy faith, we cared that all Indians learned the language of the Chiquitos” (Fernández, 1726: 45). To learn a lingua geral was also obliging for all missionaries. As far as possible, the Gospel should be preached in the autochthon idioms: without prohibiting explicitly other languages, the goals were unification and formation of a new common identity, with one religion and one language.
Título:The process of the minority languages’ assimilation was slow. “When Alcides d’Orbigny visited the former missions in 1831, he met few Indians in the different populations who still spoke their original idiom (beside the Chiquitos) or remembered having spoken another idiom in other days” (Riester, 1967/68: 175). Today, there are some traces and leftovers of these languages in regional variatons, of Chiquitano or Bésiro as well as of Spanish. Certain characteristics and the different accents among the peoples have as well their origin in the diversity of the Jesuit missions’ population. Anyhow, we can attribute the survival of the Chiquitano language to the fact that the prayers and the doctrine, converted into symbols of the new identity, were transmitted only in this idiom.
Título:The linguistic regulations – the use of a lingua geral, thus excluding Spanish – were later a motive of critics to the Jesuits, saying that they did not prepare the indigenous people for the confrontation with the white ones. But in this regard it has to be considered that the Jesuits could not foresee the violent end of their experience and that, given the linguistic variety, a common language was necessary.

Português | Español | English | Polski | Deutsch
$ 42,00 / € 42.00