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Title: Chiquistos en las Anuas de la Compañía de Jesús
Title: (Chiquitos in the Anuas of the Company of Jesus)Título:
Subject: Jesuit Missions, history of South Americha,
Title : history of the amerindian native people
Author: Javier Matienzo, Isabelle Combès,
Title: Roberto Tomichà, Carlos Page
Dimensions: 17x24cm / 6,6x9,4 inches
Pages: 458
Shipping Weight: 1,45 pounds / 0,660 kg
Publisher: Itineriarios 2011
ISBN: 9789995479633
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Javier Matienzo, Isabelle Combès, Roberto Tomichà, Carlos Page

Chiquitos en las Anuas de la Compañía de Jesús
(Chiquitos in the Anuas of the Company of Jesus)


Título:Speaking of the Jesuit province of Paraguay evokes inevitably the missions the Company of Jesus established among the Guarani. Less known is the fact that in the colonial period other colleges and missions belonged to this same Paraguayan province, among them the Jesuit College of Tarija and the missions of Chiquitos in the territory of today’s Bolivia.
Título:The Jesuits of Tarija, with a permanent presence in the region since 1690, started their evangelization work among the Chiriguano indigenous people of the Andine foothills without much success. Between 1690 and 1735 they managed to establish only five reductions which nevertheless were gradually abandoned, except one that subsisted until the expulsion of the Company. But the College of Tarija continued its activities in other environments and was particularly searched for by the authorities of Santa Cruz de la Sierra because of the demands of the Chiquito who asked for reductions in their territory. Thus began in 1691 the Jesuit adventure in the Chiquitania that marked indelibly this region in its spiritual and political aspects as well as in the ethnic configuration of its populations. Until the expulsion of the Jesuits from all Spanish territories, decreed in 1767 and realized in Chiquitos in 1767-68, the fathers established eleven settlements in the region and gathered inside them more than twenty thousand indigenous.
Título:In Tarija, the fathers established their contacts mainly with the Chiriguanos, known for their fierce opposition to the progress of the Spanish colonization, and managed also, though to a much lesser degree, to contact  more properly Chaco peoples like the Mataguayo and the Toba. But in Chiquitos they faced a multitude of indigenous “partialities” of different languages and costumes; their letters and information abound in ethnical names often difficult to identify. In this region were coexisting peoples who spoke Arawak like the Chanê, Guarani like the Itatin or the Guarayo; Otuqui, Zamuco, and Chiquitana, beyond other idioms that have disappeared. Being the most widely spread idiom, the Chiquito or Chiquitano was adopted by the fathers as the “general language”, and thus the name “chiquitos” came to designate groups that are linguistically related (that speak Chiquito) as well as the whole of its habitants.
Título:The Jesuit activities in Chiquitos lasted 75 years; in this period of time, European and consecutively Creole Jesuits took care of the evangelization of their neophytes and their material subsistence, explored neighboring regions like the Gran Chaco, came to know the indigenous people of the region and learned their language. The melting pot of the missions originated the Chiquitano people like we know it today, heir of a multitude of different ethnicities and languages that coexisted in this territory.
Título:This short but formidable experience is also attested in the formidable quantity of documents that came onto us from the Company of Jesus. Outstanding among them are the so-called Cartas Anuas, gathered in this volume along with more than hundred complementary documents up to now inedited and dispersed in archives and documentation centers in Germany, Argentine, Bolivia, Brazil, Spain and Italy.
Título:With the present volume, Scripta Autochtona, in its desire to promote the study of the Chaco-Amazonian peoples’ culture, intends to present a work that is a must of consultation for any study on the former reductions of Chiquitos and their recognized cultural legacy. (pp. 1-6)
Título:Carta Anua from the Chiquito MissionsTítulo:
Título:My Father Provincial Superior Pedro Andreu:

Título:In virtue of the patent send to me by Your Reverence, the Visitator of these Chiquito missions, I set out to visit all the settlements and walked about 260 léguas. And it is unbelievable, the great consolation I saw with my own eyes, the great works of all the missionary fathers, instructing and taking care of these poor Indios, and the much virtue and religion I found in all of them, many of them being of great penitence and mortification. Their settlements obey the same organization observed in the colleges, having their prayer before dawn, the mass and the examinations at their proper hour, and finally the spiritual lectures on Fridays and the cases on Mondays, as in all colleges.Título:
I also admired the submission and reverence the Indios pay to the fathers, always being ready to do what they are ordered, submitting themselves to punishment when they fall into any fault, without excluding the chiefs and corregedores. And it is truly admirable how they submit and obey to the young fathers that are vicars and came recently into the parish districts, some of them being not so discreet with the punishments; nevertheless, the poor Indios bow to them with humility and submission. They have in their churches nearly the same functions and maybe more than we have in the colleges. The boys have their prayer three times a day. On Sundays, the settlement prays the whole catechism; they hear the speech of some father and the chanted mass with great solemnity. On all the important feasts of Our Lord and Our Lady, they have on the eve the Salve and the litany, and on the day itself the sermon with the solemn mass. And all these occasions become solemn by good music registered in musical notation, with organ, violas and violins that increase partially the Indios’ devotion, and in these feasts there is also no lack of many confessions and communions of both sexes, and of girls and boys, a fact to praise God and much admired by recently arrived fathers. (p. 377)

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